# Types of Heuristics

Acquiescence Bias

Acquiescence bias is a category of response bias in which respondents to a survey have a tendency to agree with all the questions or to indicate a positive connotation. Acquiescence is sometimes referred to as "yea-saying" and is the tendency of a respondent to agree with a statement when in doubt.

Affect Heuristic

The affect heuristic is a heuristic, a mental shortcut that allows people to make decisions and solve problems quickly and efficiently, in which current emotion—fear, pleasure, surprise, etc.—influences decisions.

BREAKING DOWN 'Anchoring and Adjustment' The anchoring and adjustment heuristic describes cases in which a person uses a specific target number or value as a starting point, known as an anchor, and subsequently adjusts that information until an acceptable value is reached over time.

Attribute Substitution

Attribute substitution is an attempt to solve a complex problem with a heuristic attribute that is an incorrect substitution. In other words, people may substitute a hard problem for an easy one incorrectly and without realizing it.

Availability

An availability heuristic is a type of mental shortcut that involves basing judgements on information and examples that immediately spring to mind. An availability heuristic is a type of mental shortcut that involves basing judgements on information and examples that immediately spring to mind.

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Biased Estimators

Sally represents a simple heuristic while Robert represents a more complex model. Heuristics are biased because they ignore A LOT of information. The 1/N rule only considers the number of investments to choose from. It ignores everything else. This bias reduces variance. A complex model reduces bias by considering more information.

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Cognitive Laziness

If we rely too much on using our existing heuristic patterns without modifying them we can create a state of mental stagnation. This is sometimes called “Cognitive Laziness“, which is sometimes referred to as cognitive dissonance.

Fast and Frugal

WHAT ARE FAST AND FRUGAL HEURISTICS? Fast and frugal heuristics meet the criteria set forth in Goldstein & Gigerenzer, 2002.Fast and frugal heuristics are rules of thumb for decision making that are:

Nonresponse Bias

Generally speaking, the lower the response rate, the greater the likelihood of a non-response bias in play. Related terminology Self-selection bias is a type of bias in which individuals voluntarily select themselves into a group, thereby potentially biasing the response of that group.

Other Types of Bias

Although the reality of these biases is confirmed by replicable research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. Some are effects of information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments.

Representativeness

The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty. It is one of a group of heuristics (simple rules governing judgment or decision-making) proposed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s.

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Social Desirability Bias

In social science research, social desirability bias is a type of response bias that is the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad," or undesirable behavior.

Survivorship Bias

Survivorship bias is a fallacy or cognitive bias that only includes survivors in an analysis or argument. The classic example is to calculate historical stock returns by looking at companies that have survived to the present day and excluding the firms that may have gone bankrupt over the years.

Undercoverage

Definition of undercoverage, from the Stat Trek dictionary of statistical terms and concepts. This statistics glossary includes definitions of all technical terms used on Stat Trek website.

source: stattrek.com
Voluntary Response Bias

In survey sampling, voluntary response bias occurs when sample members are self-selected volunteers, as in voluntary samples . An example would be call-in radio shows that solicit audience participation in surveys on controversial topics (abortion, affirmative action, gun control, etc.).

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What is Bias in Statistics

Confounding & Bias in Statistics: Definition & Examples ... Sam is afraid there is bias in his research, but he doesn't know where to look for biases.

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