# Types of Hybridization

Bonding-Pair vs Bonding

Again we need a hybrid orbital for each atom and pair of non-bonding electrons. Ammonia has three hydrogen atoms and one non-bonded pair of electrons when we draw the electron-dot formula. In order to determine the hybridization of an atom, you must first draw the electron-dot formula.

LINEAR - AB2 e

1 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Chapter 10 Linear 180o Trigonal planar 120o Tetrahedral 109.5o Trigonal Bipyramidal

source: wou.edu
Lone Pairs Distort Bond Angles

Even with a lone electron pair and 2 sigma bonds, there are 3 electron regions, it is still referred to as sp2 hybridization. An example of a molecule with 2 sigma bonds and a lone pair of electrons is S0 2. Tetrahedral Molecular Geometry. With 4 sigma bonds and no lone pairs there are 4 electron regions and the molecular shape is tetrahedral.

Molecular Geometries of Molecules

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals and the Shape of Molecules. If the four hydrogen atoms in a methane molecule (CH 4) were bound to the three 2p orbitals and the 2s orbital of the carbon atom, the H-C-H bond angles would be 90 o for 3 of the hydrogen atoms and the 4th hydrogen atom would be at 135 o from the others.

OCTAHEDRAL - SF6 (AB6) - BrF5 (AB5E)

What is the hybridisation of \$\ce{BrF5} ... What is the hybridisation in BrF5 ... the bonding in SF6 can be described using two, ...

TETRAHEDRAL - CH4 (AB4) - NH3 (AB3E)

Finally divide the whole by 2 & you will get the hybridization. Now for CH4 - C is the central atom & has 4 valence electrons. Four hydrogen atoms are bonded by four single bonds. So according to the trick 4+4 =8. Dividing 8 by 2 we get 4 i.e. sp3 (tetrahedral).

source: quora.com
Trigonal Bipyramidal (AB5)

Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic ... Trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry 2. ... 4U molecule is SF 4 |Hybridization of S atom is sp3d. 3 Lewis Dot H C H H H

source: chem.tamu.edu
Valence Bond Theory (Hybrid Orbitals)

The valence bond theory states that atoms in a covalent bond share electron density through the overlapping of their valence atomic orbitals. This creates an area of electron pair density between the two atoms.

source: opentextbc.ca