Sometimes a developmental delay can be an early sign of learning issues. Sometimes it can be a sign of a genetic disorder or other medical condition. And sometimes a delay is just a delay. Some children eventually catch up and no longer have any developmental difficulties.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is an umbrella term for a set of disorders caused by the consumption of alcohol by a mother whilst pregnant. These conditions range in diversity from the full presentation of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), involving a characteristic set of facial features combined with growth and neuro-cognitive deficits, to a range of conditions affecting the neuro-behavioural presentations of the condition without all these features.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability worldwide. It is caused by a mutation of the FMR-1 (fragile-X mental retardation) gene located on the X chromosome. This contribution explores the genetic and molecular basis of the disease and methods for its detection, as well as neuropathological findings.