Lithography, planographic printing process that makes use of the immiscibility of grease and water. In the lithographic process, ink is applied to a grease-treated image on the flat printing surface; nonimage (blank) areas, which hold moisture, repel the lithographic ink.
“The most interesting aspect of this work is the ability to combine ‘top-down’ techniques of jet printing with ‘bottom-up’ processes of self-assembly, in a way that opens up new capabilities in lithography—applicable to soft and hard materials alike,” said John Rogers, a materials science professor at Illinois and one of the authors of the paper, in a press release.
Lithography (from Ancient Greek λίθος, lithos, meaning 'stone', and γράφειν, graphein, meaning 'to write') is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface.
The ultimate manufacturing solution may involve a combination of both approaches i.e., firstly to fabricate building blocks through directed self- assembling to generate supramolecules (material goes bottom-up), and then to assemble them into more complex nano system by smaller and smaller nanomanipulator (tool goes top-down).