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Types of Logic

Ad Hominem
Ad Hominem

Ad hominem (Latin for "to the man" or "to the person"), short for argumentum ad hominem, is a fallacious argumentative strategy whereby genuine discussion of the topic at hand is avoided by instead attacking the character, motive, or other attribute of the person making the argument, or persons associated with the argument, rather than attacking the substance of the argument itself.

Ad Hominem Fallacy
Ad Hominem Fallacy

You attacked your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.

Affirming the Consequent
Affirming the Consequent

(also known as: converse error, fallacy of the consequent, asserting the consequent, affirmation of the consequent) New Terminology: Consequent: the propositional component of a conditional proposition whose truth is conditional; or simply put, what comes after the “then” in an “if/then” statement.

Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)

Confusing ignorance with impossibility (or possibility) is fallacious. Exception: The assumption of a conclusion or fact deduced from evidence of absence, is not considered a fallacy, but valid reasoning.

Argument From Authority
Argument From Authority

The appeal to authority is a fallacy in argumentation, but deferring to an authority is a reliable heuristic that we all use virtually every day on issues of relatively little importance. There is always a chance that any authority can be wrong, that’s why the critical thinker accepts facts provisionally.

Argument From Ignorance or Non-Testable Hypothesis
Argument From Ignorance or Non-Testable Hypothesis

a common argument form which can be fallacious, such as when an authority is cited on a topic outside their area of expertise or when the authority cited is not a true expert ex: My 5th grade teacher once told me that girls will go crazy for boys if they learn how to dance.

source: quizlet.com
Band Wagon
Band Wagon

The name "bandwagon fallacy" comes from the phrase "jump on the bandwagon" or "climb on the bandwagon", a bandwagon being a wagon big enough to hold a band of musicians. In past political campaigns, candidates would ride a bandwagon through town, and people would show support for the candidate by climbing aboard the wagon.

Begging the Question or Circular Argument
Begging the Question or Circular Argument

(also known as: assuming the initial point, assuming the answer, chicken and the egg argument, circulus in probando, circular reasoning [form of], vicious circle) Description: Any form of argument where the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises.

Circular Argument (Petitio Principii)
Circular Argument (Petitio Principii)

Petitio Principii or Begging the Question. Abstract: The varieties of petitio principii (begging the question or circular argument) are explained with illustrative examples and links to self-check quizzes.

Dogmatism
Dogmatism

Religious beliefs are founded on this "fallacy", but remember that a religious belief is, by definition, based on faith, rather than empirical proof or mathematical logic; that's what the phrase "leap of faith" refers to. Band Wagon The basic fallacy of democracy: that popular ideas are necessarily right.

False Dilemma/False Dichotomy
False Dilemma/False Dichotomy

A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option. A false dilemma can arise intentionally, when a fallacy is used in an attempt to force a choice or outcome.

image: pixshark.com
Hasty Generalization
Hasty Generalization

Hasty Generalization (also known as: argument from small numbers, statistics of small numbers, insufficient statistics, argument by generalization, faulty generalization, hasty induction, inductive generalization, insufficient sample, lonely fact fallacy, over generality, overgeneralization, unrepresentative sample)

Red Herring (Ignoratio Elenchi)
Red Herring (Ignoratio Elenchi)

I. Ignoratio Elenchi (irrelevant conclusion): the fallacy of proving a conclusion not pertinent and quite different from that which was intended or required. The ignoratio elenchi is usually considered slightly narrower in focus than the non sequitur.

Slippery Slope
Slippery Slope

A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.

image: debate.org
Straw Man
Straw Man

A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.

Related Types