Diabetes mellitus and deafness (DAD) or maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) or Mitochondrial Diabetes is a subtype of diabetes which is caused from a point mutation at position 3243 in human mitochondrial DNA, which consists of a circular genome.
A mitochondrial disease that causes prominent muscular problems is called a mitochondrial myopathy (myo means muscle, and pathos means disease), while a mitochondrial disease that causes both prominent muscular and neurological problems is called a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (encephalo refers to the brain).
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease is a condition that affects several parts of the body, particularly the digestive system and nervous system. The major features of MNGIE disease can appear anytime from infancy to adulthood, but signs and symptoms most often begin by age 20.
Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa, also known as NARP syndrome, is a rare disease with mitochondrial inheritance that causes a variety of signs and symptoms chiefly affecting the nervous system Beginning in childhood or early adulthood, most people with NARP experience numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs (sensory neuropathy); muscle weakness; and problems with balance and coordination .