High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. All forms of fructose, including fruits and juices, are commonly added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, and for browning of some foods, such as baked goods.
Galactosemia or “galactose diabetes,” is a rare genetic disease, in which the lack one of the enzymes needed to convert galactose to glucose results in the buildup of galactose in the blood and a subsequent damage of the liver, brain, kidneys and eyes .
Glucose added to foods as a sweetener, which is labeled either as “glucose” or “dextrose,” can be found certain fruit juices, canned fruits and other canned foods, soft drinks, jams, dairy products, pastries, ice cream, sweets, snacks, sauces, salad dressings, liqueurs, infant formulas and other foods, and also to certain medicinal syrups and pills.
AFAIK, there is no “ribose monosaccharide” … you may be thinking of ribose (by itself), which is a pentose monosaccharide (5 carbon atoms; a simple form of sugar). From Wikipedia’s article Monosaccharide: “They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, and crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste.
What is xylose? Xylose or wood sugar is a simple sugar (a monosaccharide) extracted from wood, sugar cane or coconuts . It also naturally occurs in small amounts in berries, spinach, broccoli, and pears and as part of dietary fiber called arabinoxylan.