Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that is associated with intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. All affected individuals experience cognitive delays, but the intellectual disability is usually mild to moderate.
A type of mutation in which a portion of a genetic material or a chromosome is duplicated or replicated, resulting in multiple copies of that region. Supplement Duplication results from an unequal crossing-over between misaligned homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
In biology, particularly in anatomy, the term inversion is used to refer to the movement of sole towards the median plane. In genetics, inversion is a type of large-scale mutation. Mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene or a chromosome.
Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. People with this disorder have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape.
Mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene or a chromosome. Based on the effect of mutation on the gene structure, mutations may be: (1) small-scale mutations or (2) large scale mutations. Small-scale mutations are a type of mutation where one or few nucleotides of a gene are affected.
(2) (genetics) Chromosomal translocation, that is a chromosomal segment is moved from one position to another, either within the same chromosome or to another chromosome. (3) (botany) Transport of soluble food material from one plant to another via phloem or xylem.