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Types of Neurological Disorders

Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Acute Spinal Cord Injury

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to a traumatic injury that either results in a bruise (also called a contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (called a transection) in the spinal cord. SCI is a common cause of permanent disability and death in children and adults.

Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's Disease

When Alzheimer's was first identified by German physician, Alois Alzheimer, in 1906, it was considered a rare disorder. Today Alzheimer's disease is recognized as the most common cause of dementia (a disorder in which mental functions deteriorate and break down). An estimated 5.3 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

Health Library » Nervous System Disorders » Neurological Disorders. Alzheimer's Disease What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die and often results in the following:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of rare neurological diseases that mainly involve the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. Voluntary muscles produce movements like chewing, walking, and talking.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Bell's Palsy
Bell's Palsy

What is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy is a form of temporary facial paralysis resulting from damage or trauma to the facial nerves. The facial nerve-also called the 7th cranial nerve-travels through a narrow, bony canal (called the Fallopian canal) in the skull, beneath the ear, to the muscles on each side of the face.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Brain Tumors
Brain Tumors

Health Library » Nervous System Disorders » Neurological Disorders. Brain Tumors What is a brain tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself, or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain (metastasize).

Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body movement and muscle coordination Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by damage to or abnormalities inside the developing brain that disrupt the brain’s ability to control movement and maintain posture and balance.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Chiari Malformation
Chiari Malformation

Chiari malformations are classified by the severity of the disorder and the parts of the brain that protrude into the spinal canal. Chiari malformation Type I Type 1 happens when the lower part of the cerebellum (called the cerebellar tonsils) extends into the foramen magnum.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome
Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic (lasting greater than six months) pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury. CRPS is believed to be caused by damage to, or malfunction of, the peripheral and central nervous systems.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Craniofacial Abnormalities
Craniofacial Abnormalities

Craniofacial is a medical term that relates to the bones of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft lip and palate, are among the most common of all birth defects.

Craniosynostosis
Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis can be gene-linked or caused by metabolic diseases (such as rickets )or an overactive thyroid. Some cases are associated with other disorders such as microcephaly (abnormally small head) and hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). The first sign of craniosynostosis is an abnormally shaped skull.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Decreased Alertness
Decreased Alertness

Decreased alertness; Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Neurological Instability. If left untreated, neurological disorders can result in a number of serious consequences. The short-term and long-term effects of neurological instability can vary greatly, depending upon the disorder and the severity of your condition.

Developmental Disorders
Developmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as an individual develops and grows.

Difficulty Reading and Writing
Difficulty Reading and Writing

Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. They can also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory and attention.

Dystonia
Dystonia

Dystonia is a neurological condition with a very broad range of manifestations. The basic underlying problem involves over-activity of the main muscles needed for a movement, extra activation of other muscles that are not needed for the movement, and simultaneous activation of muscles that work against each other.

Encephalopathy
Encephalopathy

The hallmark of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Depending on the type and severity of encephalopathy, common neurological symptoms are progressive loss of memory and cognitive ability, subtle personality changes, inability to concentrate, lethargy, and progressive loss of consciousness.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Epilepsy and Seizures
Epilepsy and Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races and ethnic background. Almost 3 million Americans live with epilepsy.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Guillain-Barré Syndrome

What is Guillain-Barré syndrome?What causes Guillain-Barré syndrome ... For more information on neurological disorders or research programs funded by ...

source: ninds.nih.gov
Migraines
Migraines

The latest genetic and biological research shows that migraine is a neurological, not vascular, disorder and both acute and preventive treatments being developed target peripheral and central nervous systems, according to a prominent migraine expert addressing the American Pain Society (APS)today.

Motor Neuron Disease/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Motor Neuron Disease/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Motor neuron disease (MND) can appear at any age, but most patients are over 40 years old at diagnosis. It affects men more than women. The most common type, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), probably affects around 30,000 Americans at any given time, with over 5,000 diagnoses each year.

image: oyeviral.com
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis

An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) can range from relatively benign to somewhat disabling to devastating, as communication between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Muscle Weakness
Muscle Weakness

Neurological causes of muscle weakness: Introduction. Neurological causes of muscle weakness: Localizing neurological deficits can help the physician focus the diagnostic work-up. More detailed information about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of Neurological causes of muscle weakness is available below.

Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease patient information compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Parkinson's Disease: Challenges, Progress, and Promise Genetics, environmental factors, treatments, and research studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) are discussed in this NINDS report.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Partial or Complete Loss of Sensation
Partial or Complete Loss of Sensation

Partial or complete paralysis; Muscle weakness; Partial or complete loss of sensation; Seizures; Difficulty reading and writing; Poor cognitive abilities; Unexplained pain; Decreased alertness; Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Neurological Instability. If left untreated, neurological disorders can result in a number of serious consequences.

Partial or Complete Paralysis
Partial or Complete Paralysis

Partial or complete paralysis; Muscle weakness; Partial or complete loss of sensation; Seizures; Difficulty reading and writing; Poor cognitive abilities; Unexplained pain; Decreased alertness; Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Neurological Instability. If left untreated, neurological disorders can result in a number of serious consequences.

Poor Cognitive Abilities
Poor Cognitive Abilities

Some of the most common signs of cognitive disorder include: Confusion; Poor motor coordination; Loss of short-term or long-term memory; Identity confusion; Impaired judgment; Some cognitive disorders develop in stages and symptoms increase in severity the further the disease progresses.

Seizures
Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races and ethnic background.

Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal Cord Injury

A spinal cord injury usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae. The damage begins at the moment of injury when displaced bone fragments, disc material, or ligaments bruise or tear into spinal cord tissue. Most injuries to the spinal cord don't completely sever it.

source: ninds.nih.gov
image: amazon.com
Stroke
Stroke

A: Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. In other words, the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles.

source: who.int
Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.

source: ninds.nih.gov
Unexplained Pain
Unexplained Pain

Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing.

source: medscape.com