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Types of Nucleotides

Adenine
Adenine

Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures.

Cytosine
Cytosine

Cytosine can be found as part of DNA, as part of RNA, or as a part of a nucleotide. As cytidine triphosphate (CTP), it can act as a co-factor to enzymes, and can transfer a phosphate to convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In DNA and RNA, cytosine is paired with guanine.

Guanine
Guanine

The purine bases adenine and guanine and pyrimidine base cytosine occur in both DNA and RNA, while the pyrimidine bases thymine (in DNA) and uracil (in RNA) in just one. Adenine forms a base pair with thymine with two hydrogen bonds, while guanine pairs with cytosine with three hydrogen bonds.

Nitrogenous Base
Nitrogenous Base

Nucleotides and Bases Nucleotides A nucleotide is the basic structural unit and building block for DNA. These building blocks are hooked together to form a chain of DNA.

Pentose Sugar
Pentose Sugar

Nucleotides are the basic monomer building block units in the nucleic acids. A nucleotide consists of a phosphate, pentose sugar, and a heterocyclic amine. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP): The phosphoric acid forms a phosphate-ester bond with the alcohol on carbon #5 in the pentose.

Phosphate Group
Phosphate Group

A phosphate group is just a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms, but it has many important roles. Along with sugars and bases, it makes up nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA. As part of energy carriers, like ATP, it provides energy for moving our muscles.

source: study.com
image: phschool.com
Thymine
Thymine

There are four different DNA nucleotides, each with one of the four nitrogen bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine). The first letter of each of these four bases is often used to symbolize the respective nucleotide (A for adenine nucleotide, for example).

source: socratic.org
Uracil
Uracil

Uracil also recycles itself to form nucleotides by undergoing a series of phosphoribosyltransferase reactions. Degradation of uracil produces the substrates aspartate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia.

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