The theory of nursing systems describes how the patient's self-care needs will be met by the nurse, the patient, or by both. Orem identifies three classifications of nursing system to meet the self-care requisites of the patient: wholly compensatory system, partly compensatory system, and supportive-educative system.
Dorothy E. Johnson is well-known for her “Behavioral System Model,” which was first proposed in 1968. Her model was greatly influenced by Florence Nightingale’s book, Notes on Nursing. It advocates the fostering of efficient and effective behavioral functioning in the patient to prevent illness and stresses the importance of research-based knowledge about the effect of nursing care on patients.
The Twenty-One Nursing Problems Theory was developed by Faye Glenn Abdellah. Her model of nursing was progressive for the time in that it refers to a nursing diagnosis during a time in which nurses were taught that diagnoses were not part of their role in health care.
As the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale's Environment Theory changed the face of nursing practice. She served as a nurse during the Crimean War, at which time she observed a correlation between the patients who died and their environmental conditions. As a result of her observations, the Environment Theory of nursing was born.
Peplau's theory explains the phases of interpersonal process, roles in nursing situations and methods for studying nursing as an interpersonal process. Nursing is therapeutic in that it is a healing art, assisting an individual who is sick or in need of health care. Nursing is an interpersonal process because it involves interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal. The attainment of goal is achieved through the use of a series of steps following a series of pattern.
Henderson provides the essence of what she believes is a definition of nursing. Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the person and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs.