Winds drive ocean currents in the upper 100 meters of the ocean’s surface. However, ocean currents also flow thousands of meters below the surface. These deep-ocean currents are driven by differences in the water’s density, which is controlled by temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline). This process is known as thermohaline circulation.
Waves are actually a concentrated form of solar energy! Uneven heating of the Earth’s surface causes wind. Waves are generated by wind blowing over a distance of water. That distance is referred to as the fetch. Because the Pacific Ocean is so vast, the fetch is very large, leading to an energetic wave environment on the Oregon coast.
Because of the Coriolis Effect, the surface current moves in a direction 45o to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere and 45o to the left of the wind in the Southern Hemisphere. The surface mass of water moves with a velocity (at the bottom of the spiral) of no greater than 3-4% near the surface.
Let's define restoring force first: A force that tends to restore a disturbed ocean surface to a flat configuration (Intro. to Ocean Science, Douglas Segar). So a restoring f … orce works against a wave. Those forces are gravity, surface tension, and the Coriolis effect. Gravity is the primary restoring force for most waves.