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Types of Outbreaks

Bubonic Plague
Bubonic Plague

The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals. It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague-infected animal.

Cholera
Cholera

In October 2016, an outbreak of cholera began in war-ravaged Yemen. WHO called it "the worst cholera outbreak in the world". Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others.

Construct a Working Case Definition
Construct a Working Case Definition

By a case definition we mean the standard criteria for categorizing an individual as a case. Establishing a case definition (the criteria that need to be met in order to be considered "a case") can be tricky, particularly in the initial phases of the investigation.

Develop Hypotheses
Develop Hypotheses

A useful method for generating hypotheses in large, multistate outbreaks includes rapid and thorough investigation of restaurant clusters; ...

source: cdc.gov
Establish the Existence of an Outbreak
Establish the Existence of an Outbreak

Learn what an outbreak is as compared to an epidemic or pandemic, plus get information on how outbreaks are prevented, investigated, and controlled. Learn what an outbreak is as compared to an epidemic or pandemic, plus get information on how outbreaks are prevented, investigated, and controlled.

Evaluate Hypotheses Epidemiologically
Evaluate Hypotheses Epidemiologically

Developing Hypotheses. After interviewing affected individuals, gathering data to characterize the outbreak by time, place, and person, and consulting with other health officials, a disease detective will have more focused hypotheses about the source of the disease, its mode of transmission, and the exposures which cause the disease.

Find Cases Systematically and Record Information
Find Cases Systematically and Record Information

Step 5: Find cases systematically and record information. As noted earlier, many outbreaks are brought to the attention of health authorities by concerned healthcare providers or citizens. However, the cases that prompt the concern are often only a small and unrepresentative fraction of the total number of cases.

source: cdc.gov
image: cdc.gov
HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS

History of HIV and AIDS overview key points: The history of the HIV and AIDS epidemic began in illness, fear and death as the world faced a new and unknown virus.

source: avert.org
Malaria
Malaria

Between late May to mid-June, 19 locally-acquired P. vivax malaria cases were identified in one village of the Aswan Governorate in Egypt. CDC continues to recommend that travelers to the Aswan Governorate in Egypt use mosquito avoidance measures to prevent malaria.

source: cdc.gov
Perform Descriptive Epidemiology
Perform Descriptive Epidemiology

It is an axiom of field epidemiology that if you cannot generate good hypotheses (for example, by talking to some case-patients or local staff and examining the descriptive epidemiology and outliers), then proceeding to analytic epidemiology, such as a case-control study, is likely to be a waste of time.

source: cdc.gov
Prepare for Field Work
Prepare for Field Work

11--Prepare for Field WorkPrepare for Field Work When information begins to come in that there may be an outbreak occurring, you have to begin preparing yourself and/or your staff for working in the field.

Seasonal flu
Seasonal flu

Seasonal Influenza (Flu) About Flu. ... Influenza Diagnostic Testing in Closed Setting Outbreaks; ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ...

source: cdc.gov
Smallpox
Smallpox

Thousands of years ago, variola virus (smallpox virus) emerged and began causing illness and deaths in human populations, with smallpox outbreaks occurring from time to time. Thanks to the success of vaccination, the last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949.

source: cdc.gov
Spanish flu
Spanish flu

The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease.

source: cdc.gov
Verify the Diagnosis
Verify the Diagnosis

Step 2: Verify the Diagnosis & Presence of an Outbreak We noted that an outbreak is an increase in the frequency of a disease above what is expected in a given population. However, an apparent outbreak can result from either incorrect diagnoses, multiple diseases with similar symptoms, or even changes in record keeping or surveillance practices.