Asphalt pavement is made up of stone (aggregate), sand, additives and liquid (petroleum) asphalt. Liquid asphalt – a sticky black substance – is used as the binding material in asphalt pavements. It is viscous in nature and can also be found in semi solid forms.
A bituminous surface treatment (BST), also known as a seal coat or chip seal, is a thin protective wearing surface that is applied to a pavement or base course. BSTs can provide all of the following: A waterproof layer to protect the underlying pavement.
The pavement is opened to traffic after the specified curing period and when tests indicate that the concrete has reached the required strength. Immediately before the pavement is opened to public traffic, the shoulders are finished and the pavement is cleaned.
A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past, gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite setts were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete laid on a compacted base course.
In addition to repair costs, the condition of a road surface has economic effects for road users. Rolling resistance increases on rough pavement, as does wear and tear of vehicle components. It has been estimated that poor road surfaces cost the average US driver $324 per year in vehicle repairs, or a total of $67 billion.
Various forms of in-place pavement recycling have been utilized to rehabilitate and maintain pavements in the United States since the 1930s. The oil embargo of the 1970s and its economic ramifications stimulated the use and the development of in-place recycling.