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Types of Pleural Effusion

Cirrhosis With Hepatic Hydrothorax
Cirrhosis With Hepatic Hydrothorax

Hepatic hydrothorax refers to the presence of a pleural effusion (usually >500 mL) in a patient with cirrhosis who does not have other reasons to have a pleural

source: uptodate.com
image: hubpages.com
Congestive Heart Failure (Most Common)
Congestive Heart Failure (Most Common)

Congestive heart failure is the most common cause of this type of effusion. Exudative: This effusion forms from excess liquid, protein, blood, inflammatory cells or sometimes bacteria leaking across damaged blood vessels into the pleura.

source: webmd.com
Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis

IgM glomerulonephritis - the glomeruli become damaged by IgM antibody settling in them. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis - a glomerulus is made up of a membrane (the tiny blood vessels that filter the blood) and the mesangium which provides support to the glomerulus structure.

source: patient.info
Hypoproteinemia
Hypoproteinemia

Davies HE, Mishra EK, Kahan BC, et al. Effect of an indwelling pleural catheter vs chest tube and talc pleurodesis for relieving dyspnea in patients with malignant pleural effusion: the TIME2 randomized controlled trial.

Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic Syndrome

For patients with nephrotic syndrome, they often have severe proteinuria. Thereby, to treat patient’s pleural effusion, treatment should not only aims at reliving this complication, but also should repairing patient’s kidney function.

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Peritoneal Dialysis/Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Peritoneal Dialysis/Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

Peritoneal dialysis is a rare cause of pleural effusion. It appears, as a complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), in approximately 2% of all CAPD patients. We describe three patients with pleural effusions secondary to CAPD.

Superior Vena Cava Obstruction
Superior Vena Cava Obstruction

None of the effusions sampled in the series were transudates. Occluded lymphatic flow from increased hydrostatic pressure in the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein probably contributes to the development of chylous pleural fluid. The pathophysiology of the exudative effusions, however, remains unknown. Many factors, including diuresis, small pulmonary emboli, and the underlying inflammatory or malignant condition all likely contribute.

source: medscape.com

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