IgM glomerulonephritis - the glomeruli become damaged by IgM antibody settling in them. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis - a glomerulus is made up of a membrane (the tiny blood vessels that filter the blood) and the mesangium which provides support to the glomerulus structure.
None of the effusions sampled in the series were transudates. Occluded lymphatic flow from increased hydrostatic pressure in the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein probably contributes to the development of chylous pleural fluid. The pathophysiology of the exudative effusions, however, remains unknown. Many factors, including diuresis, small pulmonary emboli, and the underlying inflammatory or malignant condition all likely contribute.