Declarative programming is "the act of programming in languages that conform to the mental model of the developer rather than the operational model of the machine". The difference between declarative and imperative programming is well illustrated by the problem of parsing structured data.
Some device drivers communicate directly with a device, but others are layered together. In these situations, a program will communicate with one driver before that driver communicates with yet another one, and so on until the last driver actually performs the direct communication with the hardware.
This definition explains the term middleware, which is a layer of software that connects client and back-end systems and 'glues' programs together. This definition explains the term middleware, which is a layer of software that connects client and back-end systems and 'glues' programs together.
Java is designed around the principles of object-oriented programming. To truly master Java you must understand the theory behind objects. This article is an introduction to object-oriented programming outlining what objects are, their state and behaviors and how they combine to enforce data encapsulation.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
A procedural language is a type of computer programming language that specifies a series of well-structured steps and procedures within its programming context to compose a program. It contains a systematic order of statements, functions and commands to complete a computational task or program.
In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens. It is a type of graphical user interface (GUI) which implements the WIMP (windows, icons, menus, pointer) paradigm for a user interface.
Utility software is used to perform basic maintenance tasks on a computer. Examples include disk utilities like defragmenters, compressors and cleaners. There are also operating system utilities such as antivirus programs, registry cleaners and system restoration programs.