# Types of Reasoning

Abductive Formal Abductive Reasoning

Abductive reasoning is the reverse of deductive reasoning. Abductive reasoning shares it's inference based style with inductive reasoning. In deductive reasoning, the conclusion is a direct result of the facts presented. Example: Some people cannot see (fact). The condition when you cannot see is known as blindness (fact). Hence, the people who cannot see are blind (deduction).

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Ad Hominem (Abusive) argumentum ad hominem (also known as: personal abuse, personal attacks, abusive fallacy, damning the source, name calling, refutation by caricature, against the person, against the man)

Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)

Argument from ignorance (from Latin: argumentum ad ignorantiam), also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents "a lack of contrary evidence") is a fallacy in informal logic. It asserts that a proposition is true because it has not yet been proven false or a proposition is false because it has not yet been proven true.

Begging the Question

Many people use the phrase “begging the question” incorrectly when they use it to mean, “prompts one to ask the question”. That is NOT the correct usage. Begging the question is a form of circular reasoning.

Causal Reasoning

Causal reasoning is the idea that any cause leads to a certain effect, and is an example of inductive reasoning.

Causal Reasoning

Causal reasoning is the idea that any cause leads to a certain effect, and is an example of inductive reasoning.

Circular Argument (Petitio Principii)

In informal logic, circular reasoning is an argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what it is attempting to prove. Learn more. In informal logic, circular reasoning is an argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what it is attempting to prove.

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Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to California State University.

Either or Fallacy

An either-or fallacy is a logical fallacy that occurs when someone presents a limited number of options and ignores other viable alternatives. Usually, the speaker wants the audience to believe one of the options.

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Evasion

an act or instance of escaping, avoiding, or shirking something: evasion of one's duty. the avoiding of an argument, accusation, question, or the like, as by a subterfuge: The old political boss was notorious for his practice of evasion.

False Analogy

The fallacy of false analogy is an argument based on misleading, superficial, or implausible comparisons. Also known as faulty analogy, weak analogy, wrongful comparison, metaphor as argument, and analogical fallacy.

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False Cause (Cause and Effect)

Cause-and-effect reasoning is a valid form of rational logic, but only if the causal relationship is established. It is very easy to find that two things vary together and assume cause-and-effect, but this only proves correlation. It may be, for example, that both are effects of a prior common cause.

False Dilemma/False Dichotomy

Note: Staying true to the definitions, the false dilemma is different from the false dichotomy in that a dilemma implies two equally unattractive options whereas a dichotomy generally comprises two opposites. This is a fine point, however, and is generally ignored in common usage.

Hasty Generalization

Reasoning; Arguments; ... argument by generalization, faulty generalization, hasty induction, ... Is that a hasty generalization or is there another terms covering ...

Inductive Formal Inductive Reasoning Informal Inductive Reasoning

INDUCTIVE REASONINGDeductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning by Alina Bradford, Live Science Contributor | March 23, 2015 10:23pm ...

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Inductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to California State University.

Red Herring (Ignoratio Elenchi)

A red herring might be intentionally used, such as in mystery fiction or as part of rhetorical strategies (e.g. in politics), or it could be inadvertently used during argumentation. The term was popularized in 1807 by English polemicist William Cobbett, who told a story of having used a kipper (a strong-smelling smoked fish) to divert hounds from chasing a hare.

Slippery Slope

Conceptual slippery slopes, which Trudy Govier calls the fallacy of slippery assimilation, are closely related to the sorites paradox so, for example, in the context of talking about slippery slopes Merilee Salmon can say, "The slippery slope is an ancient form of reasoning.

Straw Man

A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.