One area of sewage treatment that is not well understood is the bacterial decomposition process. Bacteria may be aerobic, anaerobic or facultative. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen for life support whereas anaerobes can sustain life without oxygen.
Treatment of municipal sewage has significantly reduced pollution of aquatic ecosystems, but the problem of sewage pollution persists. Sources of sewage pollution are overflow of raw sewage from over-burdened or poorly designed systems, inefficient treatment of sewage by treatment facilities, and farm effluent.
Wastewater treatment is the process of converting wastewater – water that is no longer needed or is no longer suitable for use – into bilge water that can be discharged back into the environment. It’s formed by a number of activities including bathing, washing, using the toilet, and rainwater ...
Organic Waste Municipal solid waste derived from household, commercial, institutional and industrial establishments contain bulk volumes of organic waste. These contaminants are biodegradable, and often enter the environment with specific health hazards.
Protozoa not only play an important ecological role in the self-purification and matter cycling of natural ecosystems, but also in the artificial system of sewage treatment plants. In conventional plants ciliates usually dominate over other protozoa, not only in number of species but also in total count and biomass.
It can be as small as turning around to reach for a tool or a file, or as extreme as walking from one end of the building to another (multiple times in a day) in order to deliver a document that could be sent electronically. Unnecessary motion can also include looking for files in a far-away location and trips to the copy machine or supply closet.
Key words: enteroviruses – hepatitis A virus – rotaviruses – immunomagnetic capture – PCR-sewage Introduction Enteric viruses including recognized viral pathogens are shed in human faeces and they have been detected in sewage (Shieh et al. 1997; Pina et al. 1998; Gantzer et al. 1998).