Akadama (赤玉土, akadamatsuchi, red ball earth) is a naturally occurring, granular clay-like mineral used as soil for bonsai trees and other container-grown plants. It is surface-mined, immediately sifted and bagged, and supplied in various grades: the deeper-mined grade being somewhat harder and more useful in horticulture than the more shallow-mined grades.
Andisol, one of the 12 soil orders in the U.S. Soil Taxonomy. Andisols are defined by the single property of having volcanic-ash parent material. Although these soils exist in all climatic regions, they account for less than 0.75 percent of all the nonpolar continental land area on Earth.
Andosol: Andosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Andosols are highly porous, dark-coloured soils developed from parent material of volcanic origin, such as volcanic ash, tuff, and pumice.
Anthrosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Anthrosols are defined as any soils that have been modified profoundly by human activities, including burial, partial removal, cutting and filling, waste disposal, manuring, and irrigated agriculture.
Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles.
Brickearth is a superficial deposit of homogeneous loam or silt deposited during the Pleistocene geological period. Brickearth typically occurs in discontinuous spreads, across southern England and South Wales, south of a line from Pembroke in the west to Essex in the east in depths of up to a metre.
Brown earth is a type of soil. Brown earths are mostly located between 35° and 55° north of the Equator. The largest expanses cover western and central Europe, large areas of western and trans-Uralian Russia, the east coast of America and eastern Asia.
Calcisol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Calcisols are characterized by a layer of translocated (migrated) calcium carbonate—whether soft and powdery or hard and cemented—at some depth in the soil profile.
Clay soil can feel like a curse to gardeners and can be difficult to plant, shovel or till. When it is compacted, it is nearly impossible to break up using only physical strength. Different machinery may be able to provide a better option for tilling and shoveling the clay soil.
In geology, a claypan is a dense, compact, slowly permeable layer in the subsoil having a much higher clay content than the overlying material, from which it is separated by a sharply defined boundary. Claypans are usually hard when dry, and plastic and sticky when wet. They limit or slow the downward movement of water through the soil.
An entisol has no diagnostic horizons, and most are basically unaltered from their parent material, which can be unconsolidated sediment or rock. Entisols are the second most abundant soil order (after inceptisols), occupying about 16% of the global ice-free land area.
What is an "Expansive Soil"? Expansive soils contain minerals such as smectite clays that are capable of absorbing water. When they absorb water, they increase in volume. The more water they absorb, the more their volume increases. Expansions of ten percent or more are not uncommon.
Fill. The material called fill dirt, or only fill, typically contains topsoil, but it also contains rocky subsoil and lots of other material in a mixture without a standard composition. When farmland, forests or old roadbeds are cleared, the materials, organic or not, all go into the same pile.
Flatwoods are an ecosystem maintained by wildfire or prescribed fire and are dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), and slash pine (Pinus elliotii) in the tree canopy and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), gallberry (Ilex glabra) and other flammable evergreen shrubs in the understory, along with a high diversity of herb species.
Luvisol: Luvisol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The mixed mineralogy, high nutrient content, and good drainage of these soils make them suitable for a wide range of agriculture, from grains to orchards to vineyards. Luvisols form on
Fuller's earth is any clay material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without chemical treatment. Fuller's earth typically consists of palygorskite or bentonite. Modern uses of fuller's earth include absorbents for oil, grease, and animal waste and as a carrier for pesticides and fertilizers. Minor uses include filtering, clarifying, and decolorizing; active and inactive ingredient in beauty products; and as a filler in paint, plaster, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals.
The word "gelisol" comes from the Latin gelare meaning "to freeze", a reference to the process of cryoturbation that occurs from the alternating thawing and freezing characteristic of gelisols. In United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization soil classification system, gelisols are known as cryosols.
Gleysol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Gleysols are formed under waterlogged conditions produced by rising groundwater. In the tropics and subtropics they are cultivated for rice or, after drainage, for field crops and trees.
Hydrophobic soil – soil that is hydrophobic – causes water to collect on the soil surface rather than infiltrate into the ground. Wild fires generally cause soils to be hydrophobic temporarily, which increases water repellency, surface runoff and erosion in post-burn sites.
Kastanozem: Kastanozem, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Kastanozems are humus-rich soils that were originally covered with early-maturing native grassland vegetation, which produces a characteristic brown surface layer. They are found in
Leptosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Leptosols are soils with a very shallow profile depth (indicating little influence of soil-forming processes), and they often contain large amounts of gravel.
Lixisol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Lixisols develop on old landscapes in a tropical climate with a pronounced dry season. Their age and mineralogy have led to low levels of plant nutrients and a high erodibility, making agriculture possible only with frequent fertilizer applications, minimum tillage, and careful erosion control.
Loess is homogeneous, porous, friable, pale yellow or buff, slightly coherent, typically non-stratified and often calcareous. Loess grains are angular with little polishing or rounding and composed of crystals of quartz, feldspar, mica and other minerals. Loess can be described as a rich, dust-like soil.
Mesotrophic soils are soils with a moderate inherent fertility. An indicator of soil fertility is its base status, which is expressed as a ratio relating the major nutrient cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) found there to the soil's clay percentage.
Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy. Mollisols form in semi-arid to semi-humid areas, typically under a grassland cover. They are most commonly found in the mid-latitudes, namely in North America, mostly east of the Rocky Mountains, in South America in Argentina and Brazil, and in Asia in Mongolia and the Russian Steppes.
The Muskeg variety of soil is a component of nutrient-poor peat lands. It has the characteristic features of being acidic, scattered, and saturated peat, and is found in the stunted coniferous forests that are set up in a matrix form, containing shorter ericaceous shrubs.