Spores form a part of the life cycles of a diverse range of organisms such as many bacteria, plants, algae, fungi and some protozoa. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Kingdom Fungi), the set of early genes activating sporulation is induced by Ime1 (Inducer of Meiosis 1) and a regulator of middle genes is Ndt80p.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum. The botulinum toxin can cause a severe flaccid paralytic disease in humans and other animals and is the most potent toxin known to mankind, natural or synthetic, with a lethal dose of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg in humans.
Sporolactobacillus: Lactic Acid Makers Sporolactobacillus are unique among spore forming bacteria in also being lactic acid bacteria. These species, such as Sporolactobacillus dextrus, Sporolactobacillus inulinus, Sporolactobacillus laevis, Sporolactobacillus terrae and Sporolactobacillus vineae, make lactic acid as the end product of their metabolism. They mainly consume carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, raffinose, mannose, inulin and sorbitol.