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Types of Stains

123 Ziehl-Neelsen Stain
123 Ziehl-Neelsen Stain

The Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN stain), also called the hot method of AFB staining, is a type of differential bacteriological stain used to identify acid-fast organisms, mainly Mycobacteria. Acid fast organisms are those which are capable of retaining the primary stain when treated with an acid (fast=holding capacity).

124 Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining
124 Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining

Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology. It is the most widely used stain in medical diagnosis and is often the gold standard (e.g. when a pathologist looks at a biopsy of a suspected cancer, the histological section is likely to be stained with H&E).

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128 Romanowsky Stains
128 Romanowsky Stains

During myelopoiesis in the bone marrow, the first granules form at about the promyelocyte stage, stain blue with a Wright or Romanowsky stain, and are called primary or azurophilic granules (Chapter 2). Their formation ceases at the myelocyte stage and the formed primary granules are distributed among the daughter cells. These primary granules ...

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Endospore Staining
Endospore Staining

Endospore Staining is a technique used in bacteriology to identify the presence of endospores in a bacterial sample, which can be useful for classifying bacteria. Within bacteria, endospores are protective structures used to survive extreme conditions, but this protective nature makes them difficult to stain using normal techniques such as simple staining and Gram staining.

Gram Staining
Gram Staining

Gram staining is a common technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall constituents. The Gram stain procedure distinguishes between Gram positive and Gram negative groups by coloring these cells red or violet.

Masson's Trichrome
Masson's Trichrome

Masson's trichrome is a three-colour staining protocol used in histology.The recipes evolved from Claude L. Pierre Masson's (1880–1959) original formulation have different specific applications, but all are suited for distinguishing cells from surrounding connective tissue.

Papanicolaou Staining
Papanicolaou Staining

Papanicolaou stain (also Papanicolaou’s stain or PAP stain) is the most important stain utilized in the practice of Cytopathology. It is a polychromatic stain containing multiple dyes to differentially stain various components of the cells.

PAS Staining
PAS Staining

PAS diastase stain (PAS-D) is PAS stain used in combination with diastase, an enzyme that breaks down glycogen. Alcian blue/periodic acid–Schiff (AB/PAS or AB-PAS) uses alcian blue before the PAS step.

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