Downey. M.E. (1986). Revision of the Atlantic Brisingida (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), with description of a new genus and family. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No.435. 57pp. [details] Fisher, W.K. (1917). New genera and species of Brisingidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 20(8): 418-431. [details] Sladen, W.P. (1889).
The Spinulosida are an order of sea stars containing at least 120 species in seven genera and two families. Spinulosids completely lack pedicellariae and have a delicate skeletal arrangement. Their name comes from the presence of numerous low spines on the aboral (upper) surface.
The Valvatida are an order of starfish in the class Asteroidea, which contains 695 species in 172 genera in 17 families. Description. The order encompasses both tiny species, which are only a few millimetres in diameter, like those in the genus Asterina, and species which can reach up to 75 cm, such as species in the genus Thromidia.