Teratogenic Effects of Alcohol on Brain and Behavior Sarah N. Mattson Ph. D. ; Amy M. Schoenfeld; and Edward P. Riley, Ph. D. SARAH N. MATTSON, PH. D. , is an assistant professor of psychology and associate director of the Center for BehavioralTeratology, San Diego State University (SDSU) , San Diego, California.
These substances are AT 1-receptor antagonists; that is, they block the activation of angiotensin II AT 1 receptors. Blockage of AT 1 receptors directly causes vasodilation, reduces secretion of vasopressin, and reduces production and secretion of aldosterone, among other actions.
Research on the teratogenic effects of cocaine began in the early 1980s, and in 1985 research on the effects of cocaine on prenatal development gained widespread attention. Since then, numerous studies have contributed to information about the detrimental impacts of maternal cocaine use on embryonic and fetal development.
High vitamin A intake from supplements can result from taking a multivitamin with a high vitamin A content (some contained as much as 25,000 IU), from taking more than one multivitamin pill per day with a smaller dose of vitamin A, from taking vitamin A supplements, or from some combination of these.
The FDA recognized isotretinoin as teratogen before it was first marketed in 1982, and classified isotretinoin as a Category X drug. Category X, considered the most severe on the FDA's list of assigned pregnancy categories, includes drugs for which studies in animals or humans have displayed fetal abnormalities and that the use of the drug by pregnant women clearly outweighs any potential benefits.
Lithium -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lithium during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. More detailed information about the symptoms, causes ...
Teratogen: Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus. Teratogens may cause a birth defect in the child. Or a teratogen may halt the pregnancy outright. The classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs.