Tracleer™ patient assistance program is also available from Actelion Pharmaceuticals US, Inc. Summary Bosentan represents a new development in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, a different approach to the pathogenesis of this disease. Further trials are needed to assess bosentan's exact place in the pharmacotherapy of PAH and the patient population that would benefit most (e.g., patients with cardiogenic PAH were excluded from most of the trials).
Dobutamine is a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Its primary mechanism is direct stimulation of β 1 receptors of the sympathetic nervous system. Dobutamine was developed in the 1970s by Drs. Ronald Tuttle and Jack Mills at Eli Lilly and Company, as a structural analogue of isoprenaline.
Is dopamine a vasoconstrictor or a vasodilator? Both! It depends on the rate of infusion. At low rates of infusion (0.5 to 2 mcg/kg/min), dopamine causes vasodilation that is presumed to be due to a specific agonist action on dopamine receptors in the renal, mesenteric, coronary and intracerebral vascular beds.
"Epinephrine acts on alpha receptors causing vasoconstriction and on beta receptors causing vasodilation. The affinity of epinephrine for beta receptors is somewhat greater than its affinity for alpha receptors. When given in low doses, or by slow IV infusion in humans, the beta effects of epinephrine may predominate.
To induce vasodilation, the body must reduce these biologic responses or counter them with vasodilators such as NO (or a prostaglandin called prostacyclin). Therefore, in the absence of normal concentrations of NO, even normal levels of vasoconstrictive hormones or nervous activity results in abnormally low blood flow (vasoconstriction and its effect to reduce tissue perfusion).
Sodium nitroprusside is also useful in the identification the mercaptans (thiol groups) in the nitroprusside reaction. History. Sodium nitroprusside is primarily used as a vasodilator. It was first used in human medicine in 1928. By 1955, data on its safety during short-term use in people with severe hypertension had become available.
So epinephrine is one of the drugs we learned that is used in treating anaphylactic shock. From looking at one of the charts in the pharm book we use, the overall effect of epi seems to be lowering total peripheral resistance because of its effect on beta-2 receptors causing vasodilation of skeletal muscle.
The primary function of vasodilation is to increase blood flow in the body to tissues that need it most. This is often in response to a localized need for oxygen but can occur when the tissue in question is not receiving enough glucose, lipids, or other nutrients.
Sildenafil's trade name, Viagra, is widely recognized in popular culture, and the drug's association with treating erectile dysfunction has led to its recreational use. The reasons behind such use include the belief that the drug increases libido, improves sexual performance, or permanently increases penis size.
Tadalafil is used to treat men who have erectile dysfunction (also called sexual impotence). Tadalafil belongs to a group of medicines called phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. These medicines prevent an enzyme called phosphodiesterase type-5 from working too quickly. The penis is one of the areas where this enzyme works.
Vasopressin is a man-made form of a hormone called "anti-diuretic hormone" that is normally secreted by the pituitary gland. Vasopressin acts on the kidneys and blood vessels. Vasopressin helps prevent loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and helping the kidneys reabsorb water into the body.